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NUTRITION RESOLUTION

Nutrition information and dietitian services brought to you by a Registered Dietitian and nutritionist. Alyssa believes in creating health through nutrition. With all the confusing nutrition data and diet foods available on the web, this is a site maintained by a nutrition professional you can trust. Alyssa provides services and programs specializing in weight loss, creating optimal health, reversing high blood sugar, and relieving the pain and discomfort caused by food sensitivities.

The Paleo Way…A Healthy Diet or Bologna?

The Paleo Diet is one of the biggest diet trends of 2010.  In the book, written by Loren Cordain, Ph.D., professor at Colorado State University, readers are called to eat the way he states  primitive people ate, in order to achieve a body as trim and free of chronic disease as our cave-dwelling ancestors.

The Diet

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Paleo enthusiasts, such as Sebastien Noel of The Paleo Lifestyle, profess “you get to gorge on all the good meat, fish, and good fats you want,” while avoiding foods  we generally think of as healthy, such as grains, dairy, and legumes, and even limiting fruit.  The rationale is that before agriculture, people did not have access to carbohydrate sources and therefore, our body is not designed to process these foods.  Paleo supporters believe foods with carbohydrate lead to fat gain, diabetes, heart problems, and inflammation.  The list goes on to blame carbohydrate for obesity,  depression, mental illness, arthritis, Crohn’s disease, osteoporosis, and dental problems.

The other two macronutrients, protein and fat, are heavily promoted by the diet, especially saturated fat.   On Noel’s  website, he states  ”fat, especially saturated fat, is the cleanest energy source available to us,”  and promotes butter and coconut oil, discouraging the use of olive oil, which is a known source of monounsaturated fats.  Monounsaturated fats  raise good cholesterol and are the cornerstone of the Mediterranean diet, which has been proven to reduce the risk of certain diseases and cancers.

The Paleo Diet’s criticism of grains and legumes goes beyond the fact that they contain carbohydrate.  It focuses on two of the main chemical components that are present in some grains and legumes:  gluten and lectins.  Gluten, found in wheat, barley, and rye, is a known antagonist of Celiac disease, which is characterized by gluten intolerance.  Lectins are found in grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, and certain vegetables in the nightshade family.  Cordain states lectins harm the body by causing the immune system to attack itself.

What We Know

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Lectins are found in many plant foods and are tolerated by the majority of people.  There is some research that shows certain lectins may mimic hormones and behave like insulin, causing fat gain.  People with certain digestive disorders may be particularly sensitive to lectins and should avoid them.   Just as a small percentage of people are allergic to peanuts while many others aren’t, people can have sensitivities to a wide array of foods and food components that cause symptoms, which can vary greatly between individuals.  Many children with autism have been shown to benefit from a gluten free casein free (GFCF) diet.   The important distinction here is that just because a food component can cause symptoms in some does not mean it’s harmful to all.

Although we all eat some lectins, we don’t all get diabetes, arthritis, or become obese.  Why?  According to David J Freed, allergist, it is “partly because of biological variation in the glycoconjugates that coat our cells and partly because these are protected behind a fine screen of sialic acid molecules, attached to the glycoprotein tips.”  Our cells are generally protected from potentially harmful food components.  In many cases where this protection is compromised, it is due to infection, such as a flu or strep virus that strips off the sialic acid molecules.

Pros of the Paleo Diet

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Recommends fewer processed foods and emphasizes whole foods.  Processed foods contain refined grains, sugars, and excess salt that contribute to chronic disease.

Plenty of vegetables.  Vegetables contain vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants that help prevent chronic diseases and cancer.

Calorie reduction:  most people who  follow the Paleo Diet eat fewer calories than they did before, which facilitates weight loss and can contribute to longevity.

Cons of the Paleo Diet

Macronutrient Ratio:  Paleo supporters encourage a macronutrient breakdown of 20% of total calories from carbohydrate, 65% from fat, and 15% from protein.  Whereas this is consistent with dietary guidelines for protein, (ironic considering the emphasis on meat,) it is way too low in carbohydrate, as 40-60% carbohydrate is recommended for a healthy diet.  A healthy intake of fat is 20-30% of total calories, whereas Paleo enthusiasts insist up to 80% fat is safe and even beneficial.  This ratio is sadly not based on research, but on the composition of human breastmilk and the human body itself.

The Paleo Diet eliminates food groups such as dairy, legumes, and whole grains that are considered to be healthy for the majority of the population.  There is plenty of evidence that people who eat dairy are more likely to be a normal weight and have better bone density than people who do not.  Cutting out grains makes it difficult to get enough essential vitamins, such as folic acid, which reduces the risk of neural tube defects like Spina Bifida.  And legumes, including beans and lentils, serve as a source of protein, minerals, and are a great source of fiber, which reduces cholesterol. “They’re a cheap source of protein and have so many good qualities that it would be foolish to give them up,” states Joan Salge Blake MS, RD, LDN who is a spokeswoman for the American Dietetic Association.

The premise of the Paleo Diet:  even today there’s such variability in the diets of hunter-gatherer cultures that it’s impossible to identify one general type.  In fact, recent anthropological findings suggest primitive diets consisted of plentiful gatherable foods, such as seeds, berries, roots, nuts, shellfish, honey, and the occasional animal.  A recent study which analyzed archeological digs in Italy, Russia, and the Czech Republic revealed traces of starch grains on stones used for preparing food. “There is probably no single diet to which our ancestors were adapted,” said University of Arkansas anthropologist Peter Ungar.   ”Recent foragers have varied in their diet from marine mammals (the Inuit) to diets composed mostly of a few plant species in the outback.”

Modern concerns:  raising animals for food is considered the greatest contributor to global warming, and rainforest destruction.  Production of modern meat is threatening the many indigenous people who live in forests, with a lifestyle similar to the primitive man the diet is modeled around.

My advice

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I want to encourage anyone who’s seeking a healthier lifestyle to go for it, and not be discouraged by the sea of confusing information.  The key is to educate yourself as much as possible and maintain an open mind.  My suggestion for those interested in the Paleo concept is to do a modified Paleo Diet that includes vegetables, lean meat, fish, and eggs (limited to 1 yolk per day), but to also add in some of the power foods that research still stands behind as healthy and disease-fighting for the majority of the population.  This includes beans, whole grains, nuts, 2-4 servings of fruit/day, and olive oil.  This is what I consider a “whole foods” diet.  Continue to avoid processed foods, refined sugars, and be cautious with saturated fat (see my last blog, Cuckoo for Coconut Oil).

I agree with the Paleo philosophy that many of the chronic diseases people experience today are caused or accelerated by our modern diets and lifestyles.  Our processed foods, consumption of refined grains and sugars, and activity are at the top of the list of the antagonists to obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and others.  I disagree that whole grains, legumes, and dairy should be cut out by the majority of the population. And my biggest concern is that in trying to be healthier, people may do themselves harm in the process.  For those wanting to improve their health, going to the extreme of cutting out three food groups is the equivalent of using a skin graft to treat a paper cut.  As you gather information and hunt for the best eating plan for you, continue to consider me a qualified resource to help you on your journey.

“The Diabetic Diet”

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Many people with diabetes come to me asking what diet they need to follow. I am a dietitian after all, so I must have stacks of diets just ready to hand out to whoever walks in the door. “I would like the diabetic diet please.” “Here you go, that’ll be $20. Thank you, come again!”
Although a part of me wishes it were that easy, the truth is, each person’s dynamic health profile warrants a full nutrition assessment to be completed before an individualized nutrition plan can be built. Furthermore, most people find that a structured meal plan is nearly impossible to follow due to the unexpected twists and turns of daily life, and therefore the dietitian that hands out such a cookie-cutter plan should be prepared for mediocre results.

Because of this, people with diabetes actually need to understand, first and foremost, the carbohydrate content of their foods. This way they may plan their meals, in advance or on the fly, in a way that protects their blood vessels from the damage that high sugars can cause. Today’s savvy dietitian and diabetes educator is focused more on education than providing a diet, and more on empowering the patient to learn to build their own meal plans than having the patient rely on them for one.

Diabetes is a progressive disease in which the treatment is different at each stage. Effectively treating diabetes early on in a way that maintains blood sugars within a normal range most of the time will prevent damage to the blood vessels and delay the progression of the disease. No matter what stage you are at, it is never too late to learn to control your blood glucose so you can prevent any further damage from being caused. Below I have outlined the basic stages of diabetes and the appropriate dietary considerations that relate to them.
Newly diagnosed:

The average person with diabetes is not diagnosed until 5 years after they actually develop insulin resistance. Getting yearly doctor’s exams will help assure you catch diabetes as early as possible, well before this 5-year average. Early on, and for the long-term if your blood sugars are well-controlled, your pancreas still has enough available insulin to cover the carbohydrate eaten at your meals. You may or may not need to take oral medication.

In this case you budget your carbohydrates like you would your bank account. You establish a maximum amount of carbohydrate you can eat in a meal and still have a blood sugar at target (<140mg/dL) 2 hours after your meal. You may eat less than that amount if you wish, as long as you don’t exceed the maximum. (Disclaimer: The Dietary Guidelines For Americans recommend a bare minimum of 130 grams of carbohydrate daily)
After Diabetes has Progressed:

If blood sugars are left uncontrolled for an extended number of years, the pancreas is forced to make so much insulin over a period of time that it wears out. At this point, insulin needs to be injected, and/or oral medications may be used to stimulate insulin production or make your cells more sensitive to insulin. This will happen, on average, around the 8th year after the initial insulin resistance occurs. When you take insulin, you have a couple choices:

  1. Static insulin dose – when you take a consistent amount of insulin daily, you must keep the amount of carbohydrate eaten at meals constant. This is because those taking insulin are at a higher risk of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and must eat enough carbohydrate to match available injected insulin.
  2. Flexible mealtime bolus insulin dose – this is one of the best ways to control blood glucose and allows for patients with diabetes much more flexibility in what they eat, and how much. Your insulin:carbohydrate ratio is determined which tells you how much insulin you need to cover each unit of carbohydrates eaten (the insulin:carbohydrate ratio is individual to everyone). Once this ratio is determined, you can eat as much or as little carbohydrate as you like (within the Dietary Guidelines), as long as you take the appropriate amount of insulin to cover it. A diabetes educator can work with you and your doctor to establish this ratio and teach you how to count your carbohydrates to achieve this balance.

 

Many people with diabetes feel overwhelmed and frustrated with trying to control their diabetes. With the Western sick-care system, medications are prescribed but very little education is given on how to actually achieve healthcare. I feel strongly that this is wrong, and hate seeing people face complications from diabetes that could have been avoided. No matter what your stage of diabetes, make sure you get the education you need to keep yourself healthy. If you would like my help, please don’t hesitate to contact me via e-mail at Alyssa@nutritionresolution.com. In just a few weeks we can have you well on your way to achieving the health you deserve.

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